For a number of years in modern societies processes of change can be observed which are distinguished by the apparently opposing processes of secularization and the 'return of the religious' as well as by developments in the course of processes of globalization (e.g. migration) and technical-(natural)-scientific innovations (i.e. genetic engineering, reproductive technologies). Those developments lead to an increased perception of the topic "Religion / s" in public. In reports, debates and documentaries, etc., worked off medially, the subjects of religion(s) and religiosity seem almost ubiquitous. In particular the questions about the religion(s) imputed conflict potential on the one hand, and their presumed socially integrative function on the other hand, are at the center of public discourse. The contentions with the often supposed potential for integration and/or conflict between religion(s) will be taken up in the contributions of this volume/the book and deepened/advanced from the perspective of Religious Studies by several examples.